Apa Format Bibliography Interview Source

The sources part of an APA reference list are only those that are traceable, and can be used by others. Because a personal interview does not constitute recoverable data, it should not be included in an APA reference list. Instead a personal interview should be referenced as a parenthetical citation. For example: (J. Smith, personal communication, May 17, 2008).

If you would like to include a personal interview as part of your APA reference list, then include the interviewee, the date of the interview, and the type of interview. See the fictional examples below:

Personal interview by phone 


Soriano, A. (2008, April 5). Telephone interview.

Personal interview by email 


Soriano, A. (2008, April 5). Email interview.

Personal interview in person 


Soriano, A. (2008, April 5). Personal interview.

Personal interview overheard and conducted by a third party


Soriano, A. (2008, April 5). Personal interview with K. Walter & J. Smith.


Citing Helps Your Reader.

              Citing each use of an external source or idea provides a path for the reader to follow in the event that he or she is interested in further reading.  It allows the reader to locate the article or book and read the claim in its complete context. During your academic career, your instructor will be your immediate, if not only, reader.  Citations perform the same job here as well.  A look at some of your sources may help your instructor determine how accurately and effectively you are using your research sources.  

Citing Shows Respect.

Just as you would not want others to take and use your ideas and writing without crediting you, you should not take the ideas or writing of others without crediting them.  By citing the ideas and writing of writers, you showing them respect and credibility.

Citing Avoids Plagiarism.

It is a fundamental academic requirement that you clearly distinguish your ideas and writing from those of the sources you use in your paper.  Citation provides the mode of this distinction.  It is in your own self-interest and self-protection to clearly cite your sources in order to avoid severe penalties.


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