gained volume and
until they were as much as 40 m (132 ft) thick, travelling atspeeds of up to 50 km/hr (30 mi/hr).
Short Term Effects:
3 days after the disaster the government still had no plan of action.
Communications like roads were cut by destroyed bridges and buried roads.
This greatly delayed rescuers getting there quickly.
Colombia is a developing country with a very limited number of helicopters. Peoplestranded in the mud couldn’t be reached because of the deep mud flow.
Risk of spreading disease.
Health workers administered about 80,000 doses of tetanus and typhoid vaccines.
By the end of last week soldiers had set fire to piles of bodies and shot stray dogsand pigs to prevent the spread of disease.
Thousands of prime farming land was destroyed.
When rescuers arrived at Armero on November 14, they were greeted by a horriblescene.
They found tangled masses of trees, cars, and mutilated bodies scattered throughoutan ocean of gray mud. Injured survivors lay moaning in agony while workers triedfrantically to save them.
Altogether, about 23,000 people and 15,000 animals were killed.
Another 4500 people were injured and about 8000 people were made homeless.
The estimated cost of the disaster is $1,000,000,000, or about one-fifth of theColombia's Gross National Product
What Are They Doing?
LEDC Volcanic Eruption
Starter: Using this PowerPoint presentation - "different types of volcano", make a note of each of the four different states of a volcano and the two major types composite/strato and shield. Annotated diagrams may help you.
Task 1 - Using the Google Map below, describe the location of the Nevado Del Ruiz volcano and link its existence to the plate boundaries in this part of the world.
Task 2 - Study the following PowerPoint Presentationcarefully and build up a case study of the eruption using the structure on the last slide as a guideline.
Mount Etna MEDC Focus
Task 1 - Using the Google Map below, describe the location of the Mount Etna volcano and link its existence to the plate boundaries in this part of the world.
Task 3 - Using page 118 & 119 of the OCR Geography textbook, make notes on the following:
a. What caused Etna to form?
b. What happened during the eruption?
c. Outline the effects of the eruption (physical and human)
d. Outline the response to the eruption.
Complete the following activities:
a. Why do people continue to live and work in the shadow of Mount Etna?
b. Which job type was most badly affected during the eruption?
Create a table to show the similarities and differences between the eruptions of Nevado Del Ruiz and Mount Etna. Discuss with your teacher what the headings should be.
For those with access to the fantastic www.geographyalltheway.com resource, click hereto be taken to an activity sheet where the comparison between the two eruptions can be made.
Predicting Volcanic Eruptions
Optional Lesson - Volcano Live
Starter: Are there any volcanoes erupting now. Live Japan volcano feed hereor check out these live webcams.
Go to Volcano Live website. You are going to gather information to help you to piece together the complex nature of volcanoes.
Under the 'Quick Links' section on the left hand side click on 'Volcanology'. Here is a comprehensive list of resources that has been compiled by John Seach about volcanoes.
Task 1 - Using the relevant sections of this site, put together an essential survival pack for your own volcano tour adventure company. Make sure your information is clear and well structured. Remember, people's lives may depend on it.
Include at least the following:
a. How to become a Volcanologist
b. Dangerous gasses emitted during volcanic eruptions
c. Possible effects on your health
d. Four different types of eruptions
e. How to monitor a volcano
f. Risk of dying in an eruption compared to an every day activity
g. Risk Zones Around an Active Volcano
h. Safety Recommendations When Visiting an Active Volcano
i. Precautions in the Danger Zone (what you should wear, having someone else with you etc)
j. An example of a volcano warning system.
Mr P in the crater of Montsacopa, Olot, Spain
Do you know what a hot spot volcano is?
Check out the video to the right hand side to see why we sometimes get volcanic activity well away from the major plate boundaries.