Making new words memorable
Teaching vocabulary is a vital part of any English language course. Many teachers are concerned about how to teach vocabulary. New words have to be introduced in such a way as to capture the students’ attention and place the words in their memories.
Students need to be aware of techniques for memorising large amounts of new vocabulary in order to progress in their language learning.
English vocabulary learning can often be seen as a laborious process of memorising lists of unrelated terms. However, there are many other much more successful and interesting ways to learn and teach vocabulary in the EFL classroom.
How to teach vocabulary to EFL students
If English vocabulary is taught in an uninteresting way such as by drilling, simple repetition and learning lists, then the words are likely to be forgotten.
Teachers need to teach vocabulary so that the words are learned in a memorable way, in order for them to stick in the long-term memory of the student.
Please see the Practice, presentation and production teaching method and the lesson plan suggestions for lesson and activity ideas.
Teaching Active and Passive Vocabulary
When thinking about how to teach vocabulary, it is important to remember that learners need to have both active and passive vocabulary knowledge.
That is, students must vocabulary should consist of English words the learners will be expected to use themselves in original sentences, and those they will merely have to recognise when they hear them or see them written down by others.
Teaching passive vocabulary is important for comprehension – the issue of understanding another speaker needs the listener to have passive vocabulary, that is, enough knowledge of words used by others to comprehend their meaning. This is also called receptive knowledge of English.
Teaching active vocabulary is important for an advanced student in terms of their own creativity. This is because in order to create their own sentences, students need active vocabulary.
Active vocabulary contains the words a student can understand and manipulate in order to use for their own personal expression. This is called productive knowledge of English.
Methods for Teaching Vocabulary
Word cards and Word association
Teachers can use devices for vocabulary teaching such as simple flash-cards or word-cards. The teacher writes the English language word on one side of the card and a sentence containing the word, its definition, its synonyms and pronunciation on the other. Word cards can be an excellent memory aid.
This is also a handy way for students to carry their new vocabulary around with them to look at whenever they have the opportunity.
Another successful method of teaching vocabulary is the word association technique. If words are stored individually, they are more difficult to remember as they have no context.
But if the words are stored together in commonly used phrases and sentences, they are more readily absorbed. Putting words with collocational partners in this way helps the students to relate connected words together.
Teaching vocabulary can become easier with the use of cards with pictures, diagrams and liberal colour coding for grammatical clarity.
In this way, words are remembered by their colour or position on a page or their association with other words, pictures or phrases. Images can link to words; words can also be linked to other words, for example, a student might link the word ‘car’ with ‘garage’ and with ‘mechanic’.
This idea of engaging the other senses can also help with developing a kind of semantic map where words are listed which relate to each other, which creates a situation where one word reminds the student of another.
When teaching new vocabulary, the method of delivery needs to be fresh and interesting for the students or else they will not remember the words.
Ways in which to liven up the introduction of new English vocabulary could include brainstorming around an existing word in the students’ vocabulary knowledge.
This key word should be written up in the middle of the board and the new vocabulary relating to it can be written around it. Use colourful pens if writing on a whiteboard to emphasise different word types.
Once the new vocabulary has been taught, a useful way to test if students have understood the meanings of this new vocabulary is to ask them to match new words from one column with definitions from another column.
Testing comprehension is vital before moving onto new vocabulary. The new words are numbered in column one, and the definitions are mixed up and lettered in column two. Students can also make up sentences using this technique, matching the beginning of the sentence or phrase from column 1 with the end of the sentence or phrase from column 2.
What is it to know a word?
Teachers need to ask what is it to know a word? There is more to teaching a word than simply translating it or even using it in a sentence as an example.
Knowing a word means knowing not only the meaning, but knowing the contexts in which that word is used, the words which are related to it and where to use the word. It also requires knowing hidden implications that could be connected with the word.
Alongside chunks of language and fixed phrases and expressions, teachers should include in their vocabulary lessons these kinds of idioms of the English language.
Idioms are common features of every day language and are an important part of advanced language use and a major step towards fluency.
Idioms can be introduced to the ESL classroom through authentic reading materials such as informal text from magazines, low-brow newspapers, letters, comic strips, pop songs, dialogue from radio or television, popular films and soaps.
Grammatical collocations are when a noun, verb or adjective occur (usually) alongside a preposition. For example: ‘on purpose’, ‘by accident’, ‘in case’.
Lexical collocations are made up of combinations of lexical items such as nouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs. Examples of lexical collocations are: dripping tap, hopelessly addicted, cook dinner, happy birthday, great expectations.
Lexical phrases are good for teachers to include in lessons as another way of improving the natural sound of the students in speaking the language.
Phrases such as ‘thanks very much’, ‘don’t mention it’, ‘have a nice day’, ‘sorry about that’, are all useful in conversation.
More idiomatic phrases such as ‘practise makes perfect’, ‘it’s a high mountain to climb’, ‘it glides like a knife through butter’ are good for fluency and understanding commonly used similes.
In addition there are lots of idiomatic and phrasal verb collocations such as:
- putting something or someone off
- coming down with a cold
- giving up on something
- giving in to something
- feeling under the weather
- striking up a conversation
- bumping into someone
- getting out of something
- butting in on a conversation
- giving in to something or someone
- In telephone calls, we talk about ‘being put through’ and ‘cutting someone off’
- Sometimes single words in English have different meanings, for example, the words ‘drive’, ‘pool’, ‘stroke’, ‘bottom’, ‘fence’, ‘catch’, ‘strike’, ‘match’.
Prefixes and suffixes
Prefixes can make a word negative, for example, adding ‘un-’, ‘a-‘ or ‘dis-’. These inflections are vital for students’ understanding of words and can increase their vocabulary substantially simply by inflecting words they already know.
Suffixes work in this same vocabulary enhancing way, by adding endings such as ‘ing’, ‘less’ and ‘ly’.
Teaching the prefixes and suffixes appropriate to new vocabulary can help students to guess what a new word might mean by reference to words they already know. In this way, prefixes and suffixes can help to introduce many new words easily.
For example, knowledge of the word ‘friend’ can help a student to guess the meanings of the words ‘friendly’, ‘friendship’, ‘unfriendly’ or ‘friendless’.
Teaching students the common prefixes and suffixes of the English language can help students to increase their vocabulary greatly by recognising these other derived words.
Connotations and Appropriateness
Teaching vocabulary involves teaching the connotations of a word and its appropriate usage. The connotations of a word are the feelings it strikes up such as positive or negative feelings, and more specific ones for certain words.
Related to this area of connotation is appropriateness, such as whether or not a certain English phrase is acceptable in polite conversation with a stranger, or if it would be a faux pas or even taboo, if a word is rare or old fashioned, if it is a funny word, or more commonly used in written text, formal or informal or only used in a certain dialect.
These issues are important in vocabulary teaching in order for the student to feel confident using the new vocabulary in new or challenging situations.
Polysemy and Homonemy
When teaching vocabulary, there are subtle differences between similar English words that needs to be communicated to the students in order to avoid causing confusion.
Teaching polysemy enables the student to distinguish between the different meanings of a word with closely related meanings; teaching homonymy distinguishes between the different meanings of a word with distinct meanings.
Read more about homonyms in our English phonology section. Remember also to consider rhythm and intonation in English, both of which can make a huge difference to meaning or nuance and can be difficult for students to master.
Check out the the language guide, in particular the orthography, phonology and vocabulary sections, for more discussion on these kinds of confusing words.
Register is the relationship between the content of a message, the receiver, and how the message is communicated. Knowledge of these things helps students to distinguish between levels of formality and the effects of certain topics on the listener.
Explore more about register, form and genre in the English orthography section.
Practice, Presentation and Production
The Practice, Presentation and Production teaching method is a popular and effective way in which to teach new vocabulary. Browse the site for more information on all areas of English language teaching, including this popular PPP technique.
Do you have any more tips on how to teach vocabulary to EFL students? Share your ideas in the comments.
"Vocab" redirects here. For the song by Fugees, see Vocab (song).
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language. A vocabulary, usually developed with age, serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. Acquiring an extensive vocabulary is one of the largest challenges in learning a second language.
Definition and usage
Vocabulary is commonly defined as "all the words known and used by a particular person".Knowing a word, however, is not as simple as merely being able to recognize or use it. There are several aspects of word knowledge that are used to measure word knowledge.
Productive and receptive knowledge
The first major distinction that must be made when evaluating word knowledge is whether the knowledge is productive (also called achieve) or receptive (also called receive); even within those opposing categories, there is often no clear distinction. Words that are generally understood when heard or read or seen constitute a person's receptive vocabulary. These words may range from well-known to barely known (see degree of knowledge below). A person's receptive vocabulary is the larger of the two. For example, although a young child may not yet be able to speak, write, or sign, he or she may be able to follow simple commands and appear to understand a good portion of the language to which he or she is exposed. In this case, the child's receptive vocabulary is likely tens, if not hundreds of words, but his or her active vocabulary is zero. When that child learns to speak or sign, however, the child's active vocabulary begins to increase. It is also possible for the productive vocabulary to be larger than the receptive vocabulary, for example in a second-language learner who has learned words through study rather than exposure, and can produce them, but has difficulty recognizing them in conversation.
Productive vocabulary, therefore, generally refers to words that can be produced within an appropriate context and match the intended meaning of the speaker or signer. As with receptive vocabulary, however, there are many degrees at which a particular word may be considered part of an active vocabulary. Knowing how to pronounce, sign, or write a word does not necessarily mean that the word that has been used correctly or accurately reflects the intended message; but it does reflect a minimal amount of productive knowledge.
Degree of knowledge
Within the receptive–productive distinction lies a range of abilities that are often referred to as degree of knowledge. This simply indicates that a word gradually enters a person's vocabulary over a period of time as more aspects of word knowledge are learnt. Roughly, these stages could be described as:
- Never encountered the word.
- Heard the word, but cannot define it.
- Recognize the word due to context or tone of voice.
- Able to use the word and understand the general and/or intended meaning, but cannot clearly explain it.
- Fluent with the word – its use and definition.
Depth of knowledge
The differing degrees of word knowledge imply a greater depth of knowledge, but the process is more complex than that. There are many facets to knowing a word, some of which are not hierarchical so their acquisition does not necessarily follow a linear progression suggested by degree of knowledge. Several frameworks of word knowledge have been proposed to better operationalise this concept. One such framework includes nine facets:
- orthography – written form
- phonology – spoken form
- reference – meaning
- semantics – concept and reference
- register – appropriacy of use
- collocation – lexical neighbours
- word associations
- syntax – grammatical function
- morphology – word parts
Definition of word
Words can be defined in various ways, and estimates of vocabulary size differ depending on the definition used. The most common definition is that of a lemma (the uninflected or dictionary form; this includes walk, but not walks, walked or walking). Most of the time lemmas do not include proper nouns (names of people, places, companies, ...). Another definition often used in research of vocabulary size is that of word family. These are all the words that can be derived from a ground word (e.g., the words effortless, effortlessly, effortful, effortfully are all part of the word family effort). Estimates of vocabulary size range from as high as 200 thousand to as low as 10 thousand, depending on the definition used. 
Types of vocabulary
Listed in order of most ample to most limited:
A literate person's vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when reading. This is generally the largest type of vocabulary simply because a reader tends to be exposed to more words by reading than by listening.
A person's listening vocabulary is all the words he or she can recognize when listening to speech. People may still understand words they were not exposed to before using cues such as tone, gestures, the topic of discussion and the social context of the conversation.
A person's speaking vocabulary is all the words he or she uses in speech. It is likely to be a subset of the listening vocabulary. Due to the spontaneous nature of speech, words are often misused. This misuse – though slight and unintentional – may be compensated by facial expressions, tone of voice.
Words are used in various forms of writing from formal essays to social media feeds. Many written words do not commonly appear in speech. Writers generally use a limited set of words when communicating. For example, if there are a number of synonyms, a writer may have a preference as to which of them to use, and they are unlikely to use technical vocabulary relating to a subject in which he has no knowledge or interest.
Focal vocabulary is a specialized set of terms and distinctions that is particularly important to a certain group: those with a particular focus of experience or activity. A lexicon, or vocabulary, is a language's dictionary: its set of names for things, events, and ideas. Some linguists believe that lexicon influences people's perception of things, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis. For example, the Nuer of Sudan have an elaborate vocabulary to describe cattle. The Nuer have dozens of names for cattle because of the cattle's particular histories, economies, and environments[clarification needed]. This kind of comparison has elicited some linguistic controversy, as with the number of "Eskimo words for snow". English speakers with relevant specialised knowledge can also display elaborate and precise vocabularies for snow and cattle when the need arises.
Main article: Vocabulary development
During its infancy, a child instinctively builds a vocabulary. Infants imitate words that they hear and then associate those words with objects and actions. This is the listening vocabulary. The speaking vocabulary follows, as a child's thoughts become more reliant on his/her ability to self-express without relying on gestures or babbling. Once the reading and writing vocabularies start to develop, through questions and education, the child starts to discover the anomalies and irregularities of language.
In first grade, a child who can read learns about twice as many words as one who cannot. Generally, this gap does not narrow later. This results in a wide range of vocabulary by age five or six, when an English-speaking child will have learned about 1500 words.
Vocabulary grows throughout our entire life. Between the ages of 20 and 60, people learn some 6,000 more lemmas, or one every other day. An average 20-year-old knows 42,000 words coming from 11,100 word families; an average 60-year-old knows 48,200 lemmas coming from 13,400 word families. People expand their vocabularies by e.g. reading, playing word games, and participating in vocabulary-related programs. Exposure to traditional print media teaches correct spelling and vocabulary, while exposure to text messaging leads to more relaxed word acceptability constraints.
- An extensive vocabulary aids expression and communication.
- Vocabulary size has been directly linked to reading comprehension.
- Linguistic vocabulary is synonymous with thinking vocabulary.
- A person may be judged by others based on his or her vocabulary.
- Wilkins (1972) once said, "Without grammar, very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed."
Estimating average vocabulary size poses various difficulties and limitations due to the different definitions and methods employed such as what is the word, what is to know a word, what sample dictionaries were used, how tests were conducted, and so on. Native speakers' vocabularies also vary widely within a language, and are dependent on the level of the speaker's education.
As a result estimates vary from as little as 10,000 to as many as over 50,000 for young adult native speakers of English.
One most recent 2016 study shows that 20-year-old English native speakers recognize on average 42,000 lemmas, ranging from 27,100 for the lowest 5% of the population to 51,700 lemmas for the highest 5%. These lemmas come from 6,100 word families in the lowest 5% of the population and 14,900 word families in the highest 5%. 60-year-olds know on average 6,000 lemmas more. 
According to another, earlier 1995 study junior-high students would be able to recognize the meanings of about 10,000–12,000 words, whereas for college students this number grows up to about 12,000–17,000 and for elderly adults up to about 17,000 or more.
For native speakers of German average absolute vocabulary sizes range from 5,900 lemmas in first grade to 73,000 for adults.
The effects of vocabulary size on language comprehension
The knowledge of the 3000 most frequent English word families or the 5000 most frequent words provides 95% vocabulary coverage of spoken discourse. For minimal reading comprehension a threshold of 3,000 word families (5,000 lexical items) was suggested and for reading for pleasure 5,000 word families (8,000 lexical items) are required. An "optimal" threshold of 8,000 word families yields the coverage of 98% (including proper nouns).
Second language vocabulary acquisition
Learning vocabulary is one of the first steps in learning a second language, but a learner never finishes vocabulary acquisition. Whether in one's native language or a second language, the acquisition of new vocabulary is an ongoing process. There are many techniques that help one acquire new vocabulary.
Although memorization can be seen as tedious or boring, associating one word in the native language with the corresponding word in the second language until memorized is considered one of the best methods of vocabulary acquisition. By the time students reach adulthood, they generally have gathered a number of personalized memorization methods. Although many argue that memorization does not typically require the complex cognitive processing that increases retention (Sagarra and Alba, 2006), it does typically require a large amount of repetition, and spaced repetition with flashcards is an established method for memorization, particularly used for vocabulary acquisition in computer-assisted language learning. Other methods typically require more time and longer to recall.
Some words cannot be easily linked through association or other methods. When a word in the second language is phonologically or visually similar to a word in the native language, one often assumes they also share similar meanings. Though this is frequently the case, it is not always true. When faced with a false friend, memorization and repetition are the keys to mastery. If a second language learner relies solely on word associations to learn new vocabulary, that person will have a very difficult time mastering false friends. When large amounts of vocabulary must be acquired in a limited amount of time, when the learner needs to recall information quickly, when words represent abstract concepts or are difficult to picture in a mental image, or when discriminating between false friends, rote memorization is the method to use. A neural network model of novel word learning across orthographies, accounting for L1-specific memorization abilities of L2-learners has recently been introduced (Hadzibeganovic and Cannas, 2009).
The Keyword Method
One useful method of building vocabulary in a second language is the keyword method. If time is available or one wants to emphasize a few key words, one can create mnemonic devices or word associations. Although these strategies tend to take longer to implement and may take longer in recollection, they create new or unusual connections that can increase retention. The keyword method requires deeper cognitive processing, thus increasing the likelihood of retention (Sagarra and Alba, 2006). This method uses fits within Paivio's (1986) dual coding theory because it uses both verbal and image memory systems. However, this method is best for words that represent concrete and imageable things. Abstract concepts or words that do not bring a distinct image to mind are difficult to associate. In addition, studies have shown that associative vocabulary learning is more successful with younger students (Sagarra and Alba, 2006). Older students tend to rely less on creating word associations to remember vocabulary.
Several word lists have been developed to provide people with a limited vocabulary either for the purpose of rapid language proficiency or for effective communication. These include Basic English (850 words), Special English (1,500 words), General Service List (2,000 words), and Academic Word List. Some learner's dictionaries have developed defining vocabularies which contain only most common and basic words. As a result word definitions in such dictionaries can be understood even by learners with a limited vocabulary. Some publishers produce dictionaries based on word frequency or thematic groups.
The Swadesh list was made for investigation in linguistics.
- Barnhart, Clarence Lewis (ed.) (1968). The World Book Dictionary. Chicago: Thorndike-Barnhart, OCLC 437494
- Brysbaert M, Stevens M, Mandera P and Keuleers E (2016) How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant’s Age. Front. Psychol. 7:1116. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01116.
- Flynn, James Robert (2008). Where have all the liberals gone? : race, class, and ideals in America. Cambridge University Press; 1st edition. ISBN 978-0-521-49431-1OCLC 231580885
- Lenkeit, Roberta Edwards (2007) Introducing cultural anthropology Boston: McGraw-Hill (3rd. ed.) OCLC 64230435
- Liu, Na and I. S. P. Nation. "Factors affecting guessing vocabulary in context", RELC Journal, 1985,16 1, pp. 33–42. doi:10.1177/003368828501600103
- Miller, Barbara D. (1999). Cultural Anthropology(4th ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon, p. 315 OCLC 39101950
- Schonell, Sir Fred Joyce, Ivor G. Meddleton and B. A. Shaw, A study of the oral vocabulary of adults : an investigation into the spoken vocabulary of the Australian worker, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane, 1956. OCLC 606593777
- West, Michael (1953). A general service list of English words, with semantic frequencies and a supplementary word-list for the writing of popular science and technology London, New York: Longman, Green OCLC 318957
|Look up vocabulary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Open Dictionary of English (ODE) Multi-media dictionary developed for learning vocabulary. Offers audio from around the world, images, video clips, usage samples, multiple definitions, correlations, idioms and much more. ODE is also part of LearnThatWord's vocabulary quizzes.
- Bibliography on vocabulary I.S.P. Nation's extensive collection of research on vocabulary.
- Vocabulary Acquisition Research Group Archive An extensive bibliographic database on vocabulary acquisition maintained by Paul Meara and the Vocabulary Acquisition Research Group at Swansea University.
- VocabularySize.com – a free web-based service that implements the I.S.P. Nation's English Vocabulary Size Test in an online format.
- Vocabulary test – a free four-minute English vocabulary size test, accurate within 10%, on which Brysbaert et al.'s (2016) estimates of vocabulary size are based.
- Vocabulary test – in 30+ languages.
- TestYourVocab.com – a free five-minute English vocabulary size test, accurate within 10%
- WordsinaSentence.com – a free online dictionary that defines vocabulary words with contextual sentences.
- ^Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary
- ^Brysbaert M, Stevens M, Mandera P and Keuleers E (2016) How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant’s Age. Front. Psychol. 7:1116. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01116 
- ^Barnhart, Clarence L. (1968).
- ^The World Book Dictionary. Clarence L. Barnhart. 1968 Edition. Published by Thorndike-Barnhart, Chicago, Illinois.
- ^Miller (1989)
- ^"Vocabulary". Sebastian Wren, Ph.D. BalancedReading.com http://www.balancedreading.com/vocabulary.html
- ^ abcdeBrysbaert, Marc; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Keuleers, Emmanuel (29 July 2016). "How Many Words Do We Know? Practical Estimates of Vocabulary Size Dependent on Word Definition, the Degree of Language Input and the Participant's Age". Frontiers in Psychology. 7. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01116.
- ^Joan H. Lee (2011). What does txting do 2 language: The influences of exposure to messaging and print media on acceptability constraints(PDF) (M. A.). University of Calgary. Retrieved 20 November 2013. Lay summary.
- ^ abStahl, Steven A. Vocabulary Development. Cambridge: Brookline Books, 1999. p. 3. "The Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read: A Framework", Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, , p. 14.
- ^Wilkins, David A. (1972). Linguistics in Language Teaching. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 111.
- ^ abGoulden, Robin; Nation, Paul; Read, John (1 December 1990). "How Large Can a Receptive Vocabulary Be?"(PDF). Applied Linguistics. 11 (4): 341–363. doi:10.1093/applin/11.4.341.
- ^ abD'Anna, Catherine; Zechmeister, Eugene; Hall, James (1 March 1991). "Toward a meaningful definition of vocabulary size". Journal of Literacy Research. 23 (1): 109–122. doi:10.1080/10862969109547729.
- ^Nation, I. S. P. (1993). "Using dictionaries to estimate vocabulary size: essential, but rarely followed, procedures"(PDF). Language Testing. 10 (1): 27–40.
- ^Milton, James; Treffers-Daller, Jeanine (29 January 2013). "Vocabulary size revisited: the link between vocabulary size and academic achievement". Applied Linguistics Review. 4 (1): 151–172. doi:10.1515/applirev-2013-0007.
- ^Zechmeister, Eugene; Chronis, Andrea; Cull, William; D'Anna, Catherine; Healy, Noreen (1 June 1995). "Growth of a functionally important lexicon". Journal of Literacy Research. 27 (2): 201–212. doi:10.1080/10862969509547878.
- ^Segbers, J.; Schroeder, S. (28 April 2016). "How many words do children know? A corpus-based estimation of childrens total vocabulary size". Language Testing. doi:10.1177/0265532216641152.
- ^Adolphs, Svenja; Schmitt, Norbert (2003). "Lexical Coverage of Spoken Discourse"(PDF). Applied Linguistics. 24 (4): 425–438.
- ^Laufer, Batia (1992). "How Much Lexis is Necessary for Reading Comprehension?". In Bejoint, H.; Arnaud, P. Vocabulary and Applied Linguistics. Macmillan. pp. 126–132.
- ^ abLaufer, Batia; Ravenhorst-Kalovski, Geke C. (April 2010). "Lexical threshold revisited: Lexical text coverage, learners' vocabulary size and reading comprehension"(PDF). Reading in a Foreign Language. 22 (1): 15–30.
- ^Hirsh, D.; Nation, I.S.P. (1992). "What vocabulary size is needed to read unsimplified texts for pleasure?"(PDF). Reading in a Foreign Language. 8 (2): 689–696.
- ^ abcSagarra, Nuria and Alba, Matthew. (2006). "The Key Is in the Keyword: L2 Vocabulary Learning Methods With Beginning Learners of Spanish". The Modern Language Journal, 90, ii. pp. 228–243.
- ^Hadzibeganovic Tarik and Cannas, Sergio A. (2009). "A Tsallis' statistics-based neural network model for novel word learning". Physica A, 388, pp. 732–746.
- ^Paivio, A. (1986). Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. New York: Oxford University Press.
- ^Bogaards, Paul (July 2010). "The evolution of learners' dictionaries and Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary"(PDF). Kernerman Dictionary News (18): 6–15.
- ^Oxford 3000
- ^The Macmillan Defining Vocabulary
- ^Routledge Frequency Dictionaries
- ^(in German)Langenscheidt Grundwortschatz
- ^(in German)Langenscheidt Grund- und Aufbauwortschatz
- ^(in German)Hueber Grundwortschatz